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الموقع الرسمي لفضيلة الشيخ الدكتور صادق البيضاني || الاعتبارات
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عرض بحث : الاعتبارات
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الصفحة الرئيسية >> بحوث علمية >> مباحث في الحديث

اسم الخبر : الاعتبارات
تاريخ الاضافة: 23/01/2013
الزوار: 1741

لاعتبارات

 

ينقسم الحديث في الجملة من حيث القبول والرد إلى صحيح أو ضعيف.

فالأول : المقبول.

والثاني: المردود.

والحسن من قسم المقبول غير أنه أقل صحة من الحديث الصحيح وكلاهما حجة اتفاقاً.

وقد عمدوا المحدثون إلى وضع قاعدة الاعتبارات لبيان أن الحديث الحسن يرتقي بمثله إلى درجة الصحيح ، والضعيف الخفيف الضعف يرتقي بمثله إلى درجة الحسن ، ومن هنا جاءت أهمية الاعتبارات.

ومعنى الاعتبار : ما يتوصل به إلى معرفة درجة الحديث بعد

النظر فيما يقويه ، وينقسم إلى قسمين :

الأول : المتابع وهو موافقة الراوي غيره في حديث بعينه.

وهو نوعان :

1ـ متابعة تامة : وهي موافقة الراوي غيره في شيخٍ لهما.

2ـ متابعة ناقصة : وهي موافقة الراوي غيره في شيخ الشيخ وما فوق.

مثال المتابعة التامة : حديث أنس بن مالك رضي الله عنه في قوله تعالى: " إنا فتحنا لك فتحاً مُبيناً " – قال [ رسول الله عليه الصلاة والسلام في تفسير هذه الآية ، الفتح ] : الحديبية .

قال أصحابه : هنيئاً مريئاً ، فما لَنا ؟

فأنزل الله : " ليدخل المؤمنين والمؤمنات جنات تَجري من تَحتها الأنهار".

أخرجه البخاري في صحيحه من طريق شعبة عن قتادة عن أنس به.

ولشعبة متابعة تامة فيشيخه قتادة حيث تابعه الحكم بن عبد الملك القرشي عن قتادة عن أنسبه.

أخرجه الحاكم في المستدرك.

ومثال المتابعة الناقصة: حديث عبد الله بن عمر رضي الله عنهم" أن رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم قال : الشهر تسع وعشرون ليلة ،فلا تصوموا حتى تروه ، فإن غُمَّ عليكم فأكملوا العدة ثلاثين".

أخرجه البخاري في صحيحه من طريق عبد الله بن دينار عن عبد الله ابن عمر به.

ولعبدالله بن دينار متابعة ناقصة في شيخ شيخه " عبد الله بن عمر" حيث تابعه عاصمُ بن محمد بن زيد عن أبيه عن ابن عمر به.

أخرجه ابن خزيمة في صحيحه.

الثاني الشاهد : وهو ورود الحديث بلفظه أو معناه عن صحابي آخر.

مثال الشاهد : حديث : الطُّهورُ شطْرُ الإيمان .

أخرجه مسلم في صحيحه من حديث أبي مالك الأشعري الحارث بن الحارث رضي الله عنه ، وذكر الحديث.

وللحديث شاهدان :

الأول : عن أبي عامر الأشعري رضي الله عنه.

أخرجه أحمد بن عمرو الضحاك في الآحاد والمثاني.

الثاني : عن صحابي من بني سليم.

أخرجه الترمذي في السنن.

فحديث أبي عامر الأشعري وصحابي من بني سليم يشهدان لحديث أبي مالك الأشعري ، وهذا معنى الشاهد ، وبالله التوفيق



طباعة


روابط ذات صلة


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